Jiang, Z.-P., Qin, C., Pan, Y., Le, C., Rabalais, N., Turner, R.E., Fennel, K., Wang, K., Cai, W.-J.: Multi-decadal Coastal Acidification in the northern Gulf of Mexico Driven by Climate Change and Eutrophication, Geophysical Research Letters, 51, e2023GL106300, (2024) [link]

Richaud, B., Hu, X., Darmaraki, S., Fennel, K., Lu, Y., Oliver, E.O.C.: Drivers of marine heatwaves in the Arctic Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans, 129, e2023JC020324,, 2024. [link | pdf]

Rutherford, K., Fennel, K., Garcia Suarez, L., and John, J. G.: Uncertainty in the evolution of northwest North Atlantic circulation leads to diverging biogeochemical projections, Biogeosciences, 21, 301–314,, 2024. [link | pdf]

Resplandy, L., Hogikyan, A., Müller, J.D., Najjar, R.G., Bange, H.W., Bianchi, D., Weber, T., Cai, W.-J., Doney, S.C., Fennel, K., Gehlen, M., Hauck, J., Lacroix, F., Landschützer, P., Le Quéré, C., Roobaert, A., Schwinger, J., Berthet, S., Bopp, L., Chau, T.T.T., Dai, M., Gruber, N., Ilyina, T., Kock, A., Manizza, M., Lachkar, Z., Laruelle, G.G., Liao, E., Lima, I.D., Nissen, C., Rödenbeck, C., Séférian, R., Toyama, K., Tsujino, H., and Regnier, P., A synthesis of global coastal ocean greenhouse gas fluxes, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 38, e2023GB007803,, 2024. [link | pdf]

Izett, R. W., Fennel, K., Stoer, A. C., and Nicholson, D. P.: Reviews and syntheses: expanding the global coverage of gross primary production and net community production measurements using Biogeochemical-Argo floats, Biogeosciences, 21, 13–47,, 2024. [link | pdf]


Fennel, K., Long, M. C., Algar, C., Carter, B., Keller, D., Laurent, A., Mattern, J. P., Musgrave, R., Oschlies, A., Ostiguy, J., Palter, J. B., and Whitt, D. B.: Modelling considerations for research on ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE), in: Guide to Best Practices in Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement Research, edited by: Oschlies, A., Stevenson, A., Bach, L. T., Fennel, K., Rickaby, R. E. M., Satterfield, T., Webb, R., and Gattuso, J.-P., Copernicus Publications, State Planet, 2-oae2023, 9,, 2023. [link] [pdf]

Jiang, L.-Q., Subhas, A. V., Basso, D., Fennel, K., and Gattuso, J.-P.: Data reporting and sharing for ocean alkalinity enhancement research, in: Guide to Best Practices in Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement Research, edited by: Oschlies, A., Stevenson, A., Bach, L. T., Fennel, K., Rickaby, R. E. M., Satterfield, T., Webb, R., and Gattuso, J.-P., Copernicus Publications, State Planet, 2-oae2023, 13,, 2023. [link] [pdf]

Oschlies, A., Stevenson, A., Bach, L. T., Fennel, K., Rickaby, R. E. M., Satterfield, T., Webb, R., and Gattuso, J.-P. (Eds.): Guide to Best Practices in Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement Research, Copernicus Publications, State Planet, 2-oae2023,, 2023. [link] use this hyperlink: [pdf]

Stoer, A.C., Yuichiro Takeshita, Y., Maurer, T.L., Begouen Demeaux, C., Bittig, H.C., Boss, E., Claustre, H., Dall'Olmo, G., Gordon, C., Greenan, B.J.W., S Johnson, K.S., Organelli, E., Sauzède, R., Schmechtig, C.M., Fennel, K.,: A Census of Quality-Controlled Biogeochemical-Argo Float Measurements, Frontiers in Marine Science, doi:10.3389/fmars.2023.1233289 (2023) [link]

Woodstock, M.S., J.J Kiszka, M.R. Ramírez-León, T.T. Sutton, K. Fennel, B. Wang, Y. Zhang: Cetacean-mediated nitrogen transport in the oceanic realm, Limnology and Oceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.12433 (2023) [link]

Ciliberti, S. A., Alvarez Fanjul, E., Pearlman, J., Wilmer-Becker, K., Bahurel, P., Ardhuin, F., Arnaud, A., Bell, M., Berthou, S., Bertino, L., Capet, A., Chassignet, E., Ciavatta, S., Cirano, M., Clementi, E., Cossarini, G., Coro, G., Corney, S., Davidson, F., Drevillon, M., Drillet, Y., Dussurget, R., El Serafy, G., Fennel, K., Garcia Sotillo, M., Heimbach, P., Hernandez, F., Hogan, P., Hoteit, I., Joseph, S., Josey, S., Le Traon, P.-Y., Libralato, S., Mancini, M., Matte, P., Melet, A., Miyazawa, Y., Moore, A. M., Novellino, A., Porter, A., Regan, H., Romero, L., Schiller, A., Siddorn, J., Staneva, J., Thomas-Courcoux, C., Tonani, M., Garcia-Valdecasas, J. M., Veitch, J., von Schuckmann, K., Wan, L., Wilkin, J., and Zufic, R.: Evaluation of operational ocean forecasting systems from the perspective of the users and the experts, in: 7th edition of the Copernicus Ocean State Report (OSR7), edited by: von Schuckmann, K., Moreira, L., Le Traon, P.-Y., Grégoire, M., Marcos, M., Staneva, J., Brasseur, P., Garric, G., Lionello, P., Karstensen, J., and Neukermans, G., Copernicus Publications, State Planet, 1-osr7, 2, (2023) [link]

Richaud, B., Fennel, K., Oliver, E. C. J., DeGrandpre, M. D., Bourgeois, T., Hu, X., and Lu, Y.: Underestimation of oceanic carbon uptake in the Arctic Ocean: ice melt as predictor of the sea ice carbon pump, The Cryosphere, 17, 2665–2680,, 2023 [pdf]

Wang, B., Fennel, K., An assessment of vertical carbon flux parameterizations using backscatter data from BGC Argo, Geophysical Research Letters,, 2023 [link]

Landou, E., Lazar, B., LaRoche, J., Fennel, K., Berman-Frank, I., Contribution of photic and aphotic N2 fixation to productivity in an oligotrophic sea, Limnology and Oceanography, 68, 692-708,, 2023 [link]


Laurent, A., Zhang, H., and Fennel, K.: Role of phosphorus in the seasonal deoxygenation of the East China Sea shelf, Biogeosciences, 19, 5893–5910,, 2022 [pdf]

Stoer, A. C., Fennel, K., Retrieval of net primary productivity from daily cycles of carbon biomass measured by profiling floats, Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 8, 368-375,, 2022 [link]

Fennel, K., Mattern, J. P., Doney, S., Bopp, L., Moore, A., Wang, B., Yu, L., Ocean biogeochemical modelling, Nature Reviews Methods Primers, 2, 76, doi: 10.1038/s43586-022-00154-2, 2022

Wang, B., Fennel, K., Biogeochemical Argo data suggest only a minor contribution of small particles to long-term carbon sequestration in the subpolar North Atlantic, Limnology and Oceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.12209, 2022 [link]; See OCB Highlight here

Lotze, H. K., Mellon, S., Coyne, J., Betts, M., Burchell, M., Fennel, K., Dusseault, M. A., Fuller, S. D., Galbraith, E., Garcia Suarez, L., de Gelleke, L., Golombek, N., Kelly, B., Kuehn, S. D., Oliver, E., MacKinnon, M., Muraoka, W., Predham, I. T. G., Rutherford, K., Shackell, N., Sherwood, O., Sibert, E. C., Kienast, M., Long-term ocean and resource dynamics in a hotspot of climate change, FACETS 7, doi:10.1139/facets-2021-0197, 2022 [link]

Fennel, K., Cyronak, T., DeGrandpre, M., Ho, D.T., Laruelle, G.G., Maher, D. and J. Moriarty, Carbon, Coast, and the Climate, In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science, Ed: H. von Storch, Oxford University Press doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.824, 2022 [pdf]

Boss, E., Waite, A., Karstensen, J., Trull, T., Muller-Karger, F. E., Sosik, H. M., Uitz, J., Acinas, S. G., Fennel, K., Berman-Frank, I., Thomalla, S., Yamazaki, H., Batten, S. D., Gregori, G. J., Richardson, A. J., Wanninkhof, R., Recommendations for plankton measurements on OceanSITES moorings with relevance to other observing sites, Frontiers in Marine Science 9:929436, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.929436, 2022 [link]

Rutherford, K., Fennel, K., Elucidating coastal ocean carbon transport processes: A novel approach applied to the northwest North Atlantic Shelf, Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2021GL097614, https://doi. org/10.1029/2021GL097614, 2022 [link]

Dilmahamod, A.F., J. Karstensen, H. Dietze, U. Löptien, K. Fennel, Generation mechanisms of mesoscale eddies in the Mauritanian Upwelling Region, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 52, 161-182,, 2022 [link]

Chua, E. J., Huettel, M., Fennel, K., Fulweiler, R. W., A case for addressing the unresolved role of permeable shelf sediments in ocean denitrification, Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 7, 11-25, 2022 [link]


Rutherford, K., Fennel, K., Atamanchuk, D., Wallace, D., and Thomas, H., A modeling study of temporal and spatial pCO2 variability on the biologically active and temperature-dominated Scotian Shelf, Biogeosciences, 18, 6271-6286, 2021 [link]

Wang, B., Fennel, K., Yu, L., Can assimilation of satellite observations improve subsurface biological properties in a numerical model? A case study for the Gulf of Mexico, Ocean Science, 17, 1141–1156,, 2021 [link]

von Storch, H., Fennel, K., Jensen, J., Lewis, K., Ratter, B., Schlurmann, T., Wahl, T., Zhang W., Climate and Coast, In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science, Oxford University Press,, 2021 [link]

Baatz, R., H.J. Hendricks Franssen, E. Euskirchen, D. Sihi, M. Dietze, S. Ciavatta, K. Fennel, H. Beck, G. De Lannoy, V.N.R. Pauwels, A. Raiho, C. Montzka, M. Williams, U. Mishra, C. Poppe, S. Zacharias, A. Lausch, L. Samaniego, K. Van Looy, H. Bogena, M. Adamescu, M. Mirtl, A. Fox, K. Goergen, B. S. Naz, Y. Zeng, H. Vereecken, Reanalysis in Earth System Science: Towards Terrestrial Ecosystem Reanalysis, Reviews in Geophysics, 59, e2020RG000715,, 2021 [pdf]

Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Kuhn, A.: An observation-based evaluation and ranking of historical Earth system model simulations in the northwest North Atlantic Ocean, Biogeosciences, 18, 1803–1822,, 2021 [pdf]

Bianchi, T. S., Anand, M., Bauch, C. T., Canfield, D. E., De Meester, L., Fennel, K., Groffman, P. M., Pace, M. L., Saito, M., and Simpson, M. J.: Ideas and perspectives: Biogeochemistry – some key foci for the future, Biogeosciences, 18, 3005–3013,, 2021 [pdf]


Zhang, H., Fennel, K., Laurent, A., and Bian, C.: A numerical model study of the main factors contributing to hypoxia and its interannual and short-term variability in the East China Sea, Biogeosciences, 17, 5745–5761,, 2020 [pdf]

Matli, V.R.R, A. Laurent, K. Fennel, K. Craig, J. Krause, and D.R. Obenour, Fusion-Based Hypoxia Estimates: Combining Geostatistical and Mechanistic Models of Dissolved Oxygen Variability, Environmental Science & Technology,, 2020

Wang, H., J. Lehrter, K. Maiti, K. Fennel, A. Laurent, N. Rabalais, N. Hussain, Q. Li, K.M. Scaboo, W.‐J. Cai, Benthic Respiration in Hypoxic Waters Enhances Bottom Water Acidification in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Journal of Geophysical Research--Oceans,, 2020

Gordon, C., Fennel, K., Richards, C., Shay, L. K., and Brewster, J. K.: Can ocean community production and respiration be determined by measuring high-frequency oxygen profiles from autonomous floats?, Biogeosciences, 17, 4119–4134,, 2020. [pdf]

Wang, B., Fennel, K., Yu, L., and Gordon, C.: Assessing the value of biogeochemical Argo profiles versus ocean color observations for biogeochemical model optimization in the Gulf of Mexico, Biogeosciences, 17, 4059–4074,, 2020 [pdf]

Chai, F., Johnson, K. S., Claustre, H., Xing, X., Wang, Y., Boss, E., Riser, S., Fennel, K., Oscar Schofield, O., Sutton, A., Monitoring ocean biogeochemistry with autonomous platforms, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment,, 2020 [pdf]

Große, F., Fennel, K., Zhang, H., and Laurent, A.: Quantifying the contributions of riverine vs. oceanic nitrogen to hypoxia in the East China Sea, Biogeosciences, 17, 2701–2714,, 2020 [link, pdf]


Yu, L., Fennel, K., Wang, B., Laurent, A., Thompson, K. R., and Shay, L. K.: Evaluation of nonidentical versus identical twin approaches for observation impact assessments: an ensemble-Kalman-filter-based ocean assimilation application for the Gulf of Mexico, Ocean Science, 15, 1801–1814,, 2019 [link, pdf]

Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Time-evolving, spatially explicit forecasts of the northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone, Environmental Science & Technology, 53, 14,449-14,458, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b05790, 2019 [pdf]

Kuhn, A. Fennel, K., Evaluating ecosystem model complexity for the northwest North Atlantic through surrogate-based optimization, Ocean Modelling, (2019) [pdf]

Große, F., Fennel, K., & Laurent, A., Quantifying the relative importance of riverine and open‐ocean nitrogen sources for hypoxia formation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124. 10.1029/2019JC015230 (2019) [pdf]

Roemmich D, Alford MH, Claustre H, Johnson K, King B, Moum J, Oke P, Owens WB, Pouliquen S, Purkey S, Scanderbeg M, Suga T, Wijffels S, Zilberman N, Bakker D, Baringer M, Belbeoch M, Bittig HC, Boss E, Calil P, Carse F, Carval T, Chai F, Conchubhair DÓ, d’Ortenzio F, Dall’Olmo G, Desbruyeres D, Fennel K, Fer I, Ferrari R, Forget G, Freeland H, Fujiki T, Gehlen M, Greenan B, Hallberg R, Hibiya T, Hosoda S, Jayne S, Jochum M, Johnson GC, Kang K, Kolodziejczyk N, Körtzinger A, Le Traon P-Y, Lenn Y-D, Maze G, Mork KA, Morris T, Nagai T, Nash J, Naveira Garabato A, Olsen A, Pattabhi RR, Prakash S, Riser S, Schmechtig C, Schmid C, Shroyer E, Sterl A, Sutton P, Talley L, Tanhua T, Thierry V, Thomalla S, Toole J, Troisi A, Trull TW, Turton J, Velez-Belchi PJ, Walczowski W, Wang H, Wanninkhof R, Waterhouse AF, Waterman S, Watson A, Wilson C, Wong APS, Xu J and Yasuda I, On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi- Disciplinary Array, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:439. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00439 (2019) [link]

Engler C, VanderZwaag DL, Fennel K, Ocean acidification post-Paris: Gauging law and policy responses in light of evolving scientific knowledge, Ocean Yearbook 33, 207-249, doi:10.1163/9789004395633_009, 2019 [pdf]

Lombard F, Boss E, Waite AM, Vogt M, Uitz J, Stemmann L, Sosik HM, Schulz J, Romagnan J-B, Picheral M, Pearlman J, Ohman MD, Niehoff B, Möller KO, Miloslavich P, Lara-Lpez A, Kudela R, Lopes RM, Kiko R, Karp-Boss L, Jaffe JS, Iversen MH, Irisson J-O, Fennel K, Hauss H, Guidi L, Gorsky G, Giering SLC, Gaube P, Gallager S, Dubelaar G, Cowen RK, Carlotti F, Briseño-Avena C, Berline L, Benoit-Bird K, Bax N, Batten S, Ayata SD, Artigas LF and Appeltans W, Globally Consistent Quantitative Observations of Planktonic Ecosystems, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:196, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00196 (2019) [link]

Fennel, K., Alin, S., Barbero, L., Evans, W., Bourgeois, T., Cooley, S., Dunne, J., Feely, R. A., Hernandez-Ayon, J. M., Hu, X., Lohrenz, S., Muller-Karger, F., Najjar, R., Robbins, L., Shadwick, E., Siedlecki, S., Steiner, N., Sutton, A., Turk, D., Vlahos, P., and Wang, Z. A.: Carbon cycling in the North American coastal ocean: a synthesis, Biogeosciences 16, 1281-1304, (2019) [link, pdf] See OCB highlight [here]

Fennel, K., M. Gehlen, P. Brasseur, C.W. Brown, S. Ciavatta, G. Cossarini, A.M. Crise, C. Edwards, D. Ford, M.A.M. Friedrichs, M. Gregoire, E. Jones, H.-C. Kim, J. Lamouroux, R. Murtugudde and C. Perruche, Advancing marine biogeochemical and ecosystem reanalyses and forecasts as tools for monitoring and managing ecosystem health, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:89 doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00089 (2019) [pdf]

Fennel, K., and Testa, J.M., Biogeochemical controls on coastal hypoxia, Annual Review of Marine Science, 11, 105-130 (2019) [pdf]

Denley, D., Metaxas, A., Fennel, K., Community composition influences the population growth and ecological impact of invasive species in response to climate change, Oecologia, 189, 537-548, (2019) [pdf]


Kuhn, A. M., Fennel, K., and Berman-Frank, I., Modelling the biogeochemical effects of heterotrophic and autotrophic N2 fixation in the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel), Red Sea, Biogeosciences 15, 7379-7401 (2018) [pdf]

Fennel, K., S. R. Alin, L. Barbero, W. Evans, T. Bourgeois, S. R. Cooley, J. Dunne, R. A. Feely, J. M. Hernandez-Ayon, C. Hu, X. Hu, S. E. Lohrenz, F. Muller-Karger, R. G. Najjar, L. Robbins, J. Russell, E. H. Shadwick, S. Siedlecki, N. Steiner, D. Turk, P. Vlahos, and Z. A. Wang, 2018: Chapter 16: Coastal ocean and continental shelves. In Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2): A Sustained Assessment Report [Cavallaro, N., G. Shrestha, R. Birdsey, M. A. Mayes, R. G. Najjar, S. C. Reed, P. Romero-Lankao, and Z. Zhu (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 649-688,

Irie, M., F. Hirose, T. Okada, J.P. Mattern and K. Fennel, Modeling of nitrogen and phosphorus profiles in sediment of Osaka Bay, Japan with parameter optimization using the polynomial chaos expansion, Coastal Engineering Journal, 60, 499-515, doi:10.1080/21664250.2018.1531814 (2018) [pdf]

Claret, M., E.D. Galbraith, J.B. Palter, D. Bianchi, K. Fennel, D. Gilbert, and J.P. Dunne, Rapid coastal deoxygenation due to ocean circulation shift in the NW Atlantic, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0263-1 (2018) [pdf]

Rutherford, K. and Fennel, K., Diagnosing transit times on the northwestern North Atlantic continental shelf, Ocean Science, 14, 1207-1221 (2018) [pdf]

Moriarty, J.M., C.K. Harris, M.A.M. Friedrichs, K. Fennel, and K. Xu, Impact of seabed resuspension on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in the northern Gulf of Mexico: A numerical modeling study, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 123, 7237-7263 (2018) [link]

Fennel, K. and Laurent, A., N and P as ultimate and proximate limiting nutrients in the northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for hypoxia reduction strategies, Biogeosciences, 15, 3121-3131 (2018) [link]

Yu, L., Fennel, K., Bertino, L., Gharamti, M.E., Thompson, K.R., Insights on multivariate updates of physical and biogeochemical ocean variables using an Ensemble Kalman Filter and an idealized model of upwelling, Ocean Modelling, 126, 13-28 (2018) [pdf]

Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Ko, D.S., Lehrter J., Climate change projected to exacerbate impacts of coastal eutrophication in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 123, 3408-3426 (2018) [pdf]

Lemay, J., Thomas, H., Craig, S. E., Burt, W. J., Fennel, K., and Greenan, B. J. W., Hurricane Arthur and its effect on the short-term variability of pCO2 on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic, Biogeosciences, 15, 2111-2123 (2018) [pdf]

Lohrenz, S.E., Cai, W.-J., Chakraborty, S., Huang, W.-J., Guo, X., He, R., Xue, Z., Fennel, K., Howden, S., Tian, H., Satellite estimation of coastal pCO2 and air-sea flux of carbon dioxide in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Remote Sensing of Environment, 207, 71-83 (2018) [pdf]

Izett, J. and Fennel, K., Estimating the cross-shelf export of riverine materials, Part 1: General relationships from an idealized numerical model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 32, 160-175 (2018) [pdf]

Izett, J. and Fennel, K., Estimating the cross-shelf export of riverine materials, Part 2: Estimates of Global Freshwater and Nutrient Export. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 32, 176-186 (2018) [pdf]


Fennel, K., B. Greenan, and participants of the Canadian BGC Argo Workshop (2017), Taking the Ocean’s Pulse: A Vision for the Canadian Biogeochemical Argo Program,

Fennel, K., Ocean hotspots of nitrogen loss, Nature, 551, 305-306 (2017) [read-only]

Luettich, R. A., Jr., L. D. Wright, C. R. Nichols, R. Baltes, M. A. M. Friedrichs, A. Kurapov, A. van der Westhuysen, K. Fennel, and E. Howlett, A test bed for coastal and ocean modeling Eos 98, (2017) [link]

Justic, D., Rose, K.A., Hetland, R.D., Fennel, K. (eds.), Modeling Coastal Hypoxia: Numerical Simulations of Patterns, Controls and Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics, Springer (2017) [link]

Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Modeling river-induced phosphorus limitation in the context of coastal hypoxia, In: Modeling Coastal Hypoxia: Numerical Simulations of Patterns, Controls and Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics, Justic, D., Rose, K.A., Hetland, R.D., Fennel, K., (eds.), p. 149-171, Springer (2017) [pdf]

Rose, K., Justic, D., Fennel, K., Hetland, R., Numerical modeling of hypoxia and its effects: Synthesis and going forward, In: Modeling Coastal Hypoxia: Numerical Simulations of Patterns, Controls and Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics, Justic, D., Rose, K.A., Hetland, R.D., Fennel, K., (eds.), p. 401-421, Springer (2017) [pdf]

Sharples, J., J.J. Middelburg, K. Fennel and T.D. Jickells, What proportion of riverine nutrients reaches the open ocean? Global Biogeochemical Cycles 31, 39–58 (2017) [link]; See EOS Research Spotlight article: [here]; See OCB Highlight article: [here]

Moriarty, J. M., Harris, C. K., Fennel, K., Friedrichs, M. A. M., Xu, K., and Rabouille, C., The roles of resuspension, diffusion and biogeochemical processes on oxygen dynamics offshore of the Rhône River, France: a numerical modeling study, Biogeosciences 14, 1919-1946 (2017) [link].

Jickells, T. D., Buitenhuis, E., Altieri, K., Baker, A.R., Capone, D., Duce, R.A., Dentener, F., Fennel, K,Kanakidou, M., LaRoche, J., Lee, K., Liss, P., Middelburg, J.J., Moore, J.K., Okin, G., Oschlies, A., Sarin, M., Seitzinger, S., Sharples, J., Singh, A., Suntharalingam, P., Uematsu, M., Zamora, L.M., A reevaluation of the magnitude and impacts of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen inputs on the ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 31, 289–305 (2017) [link]

Laurent, A., K. Fennel, W.-J. Cai, W.-J. Huang, L. Barbero, and R. Wanninkhof, Eutrophication-induced acidification of coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Insights into origin and processes from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, Geophysical Research Letters 44, 946-956 (2017) [pdf]


Brennan, C.E., H. Blanchard and K. Fennel, Putting Temperature and Oxygen Thresholds of Marine Animals in Context of Environmental Change: A Regional Perspective for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of St. Lawrence, PLOS ONE, 11(12):e0167411.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167411 (2016) [link]

Fennel, K., A. Laurent, R. Hetland, D. Justić, D. S. Ko, J. Lehrter, M. Murrell, L. Wang, L. Yu, and W. Zhang, Effects of model physics on hypoxia simulations for the northern Gulf of Mexico: A model intercomparison, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 121, 5731–5750 (2016) [link] [pdf]

Xue, Z., He, R., Fennel, K., Cai, W.-J., Lohrenz, S., Huang, W.-J., Tian, H., Ren, W., and Zang, Z.: Modeling pCO2 variability in the Gulf of Mexico, Biogeosciences, 13, 4359-4377 (2016) [link]

Constable, A.J., D.P. Costa, O. Schofield, L. Newman, E.R. Urban Jr., E.A. Fulton, J. Melbourne-Thomas, T. Ballerini, P.W. Boyd, A. Brandt, B. de la Mare, M. Edwards, M. Eléaume, L. Emmerson, K. Fennel, S. Fielding, H. Griffiths, J. Gutt, M.A. Hindell, E.E. Hofmann, S. Jennings, H. Sul La, A. McCurdy, B.G. Mitchell, T. Moltmann, M. Muelbert, E. Murphy, T. Press, B. Raymond, K. Reid, C. Reiss, J. Rice, I. Salter, D. Smith, S. Song, C. Southwell, K. Swadling, A. Van de Putte, Z. Willis, Determining priority variables (“ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables” – eEOVs) for observing dynamics and change in Southern Ocean ecosystems, Journal of Marine Systems 161, 26-41 (2016) [link]

Brennan, C.E., Bianucci, L., Fennel, K., Sensitivity of Northwest North Atlantic Shelf Circulation to Surface and Boundary Forcing: A Regional Model
, Atmosphere-Ocean, doi:10.1080/07055900.2016.1147416 (2016) [pdf]

Bianucci, L., Fennel, K., Chabot, D., Shackell, N., Lavoie, D., Ocean biogeochemical models as management tools: a case study for Atlantic wolffish and declining oxygen, ICES Journal of Marine Science 73, 263-274 (2016) [link]

Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Wilson, R., Lehrter, J., and Devereux, R., Parameterization of biogeochemical sediment–water fluxes using in situ measurements and a diagenetic model, Biogeosciences 13, 77-94 (2016) [link]

Cahill, B., Wilkin, J., Fennel, K., Vandemark, D., Friedrichs, M., Interannual and seasonal variabilities in air-sea CO2 fluxes along the U.S. eastern continental shelf and their sensitivity to increasing air temperatures and variable wind, Journal of Geophysical Research—Biogeosciences 121, doi:10.1002/2015JG002939 (2016) [pdf]

Fennel, K., VanderZwaag, D.L., Ocean acidification: Surging science and lagging law and policy responses, p. 342-362, In: Warner, R., Kaye, S. (eds.) Routledge Handbook on Maritime Regulation and Enforcement, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, New York (2016) [proof]


Kuhn, A.M., Fennel, K., Mattern, J.P., Model investigations of the North Atlantic spring bloom initiation, Progress in Oceanography 138, 176-193 (2015) [pdf]

Yu, L., K. Fennel, and A. Laurent, A modeling study of physical controls on hypoxia generation in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 120, 5019-5039 (2015) [pdf]

Yu, L., Fennel, K., Laurent, A., Murrell, M.C., Lehrter, J.C., Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana shelf, Biogeosciences 12, 2063-2076 (2015) [link]

Zhang, W., Hetland, R.D., DiMarco S.F., Fennel, K., Processes controlling mid-water column oxygen minima over the Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 120, 2800-2812 (2015) [link]


Hartman, W., VanderZwaag, D.L., Fennel, K., Recovery Planning for Pacific Marine Species at Risk in the Wake of Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Canadian Practice, Future Courses, Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 27:23-56 (2014) [pdf]

Liu, K.-K., Kang, C.-K., Kobari, T., Liu, H., Rabouille, C., Fennel, K., Biogeochemistry and ecosystems of continental margins in the western North Pacific Ocean and their interactions and responses to external forcing – an overview and synthesis, Biogeosciences 11:7061-7075, doi:10.5194/bg-11-7061-2014 (2014) [link]

Langseth, B.J., Purcell, K.M., Craig, J.K., Schueller, A.M., Smith, J.W., Shertzer, K.W., Creekmore, S., Rose, K.A., Fennel, K., Effect of changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations on the spatial dynamics of the Gulf Menhaden fishery in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 6:223-234, doi:10.1080/19425120.2014.949017 (2014) [pdf]

Mattern, J. P., K. Fennel, and M. Dowd, Periodic time-dependent parameters improving forecasting abilities of biological ocean models, Geophysical Research Letters 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL061178 (2014) [link]

Lagman, K.B., Fennel, K., Thompson, K.R., Bianucci, L., Assessing the utility of frequency dependent nudging for reducing biases in biogeochemical models, Ocean Modelling 81:25-35, doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.06.006 (2014) [link]

Azhar, M.A., Canfield, D.E., Fennel, K., Thamdrup, B., Bjerrum, C. J., A model-based insight into the coupling of nitrogen and sulfur cycles in a coastal upwelling system, Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 119, doi:10.1002/2012JG002271 (2014) [link]

Fennel, K. Other nutrients and dissolved oxygen and climate change, In: Freedman, B. (ed) Global Environmental Change, Handbook of Global Environmental Pollution XXVII, 973 p., Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, doi:10.1007/SpringerReference_306841 (2014) [url] [pdf]

Feng, Y., Fennel, K., Jackson, G.A., DiMarco, S.F., Hetland, R.D., A model study of the response of hypoxia to upwelling favorable wind on the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf, Journal of Marine Systems 131:63-73 (2014) [link]

Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Simulated reduction of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to phosphorus limitation, Elementa 2:000022, doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000022 (2014) [link]

Garcon, V.C., Bell, T.G., Wallace, D., Arnold, S.R., Baker, A., Bakker, C.E. Bange, H.W., Bates, N.R., Bopp, L., Boutin, J., Boyd, P.W. Bracher, A., Burrows, J.P., Carpenter, L.J. de Leeuw, G., Fennel, K., Font, J., Friedrich, T., Garbe, C.S., Gruber, N., Jargle, L., Lana, A., Lee, J.D., Liss, P.S., Miller, L.A., Olgun, N., Olsen, A., Pfeil, B., Quack, B., Read, K. Reul, N., Roedenbeck, C., Rohekar, S.S., Saiz-Lopez, A., Saltzman E.S., Schneising, O., Schuster, U., Seferian, R., Steinhoff, T., Le Traon, P.-Y., Ziska, F., Perspectives and integration of SOLAS science, In: Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles, eds.: P.S. Liss and M.T. Johnson, Springer Earth System Sciences, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25643-1_5 (2014) [pdf]

Ibarra, D., Fennel, K., Cullen, J., Coupling 3-D Eulerian bio-physics (ROMS) with individual-based shellfish ecophysiology (SHELL-E): A hybrid model for carrying capacity and environmental impacts of bivalve aquaculture, Ecological Modelling 273, 63-78 (2014) [pdf]


Luettich, R.A. Jr., Wright, D.D., Signell, R., Friedrichs, C., Friedrichs, M., Harding, J., Fennel, K., Howlett, E., Graves, S., Smith, E., Crane, G., Baltes, B., Introduction to special section on The U.S. IOOS Super-regional Coastal Ocean Modeling Testbed, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 118, 6319-6328, doi:10.1002/2013JC008939 (2013) [link]

Mattern, P., Dowd, M., Fennel, K., Particle Filter-based data assimilation for a 3D biological ocean model and satellite observations, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 118, 2746-2760, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20213 (2013) [pdf]

Wilson, R.F., Fennel, K., Mattern, P., Simulating sediment-water exchange of nutrients and oxygen: A comparative assessment of models against mesocosm observations, Continental Shelf Research 63, 69-84 (2013) [pdf]

Xue, Z., He, R., Fennel, K., Cai, W.-J., Lohrenz, S., and Hopkinson, C., Modeling ocean circulation and biogeochemical variability in the Gulf of Mexico, Biogeosciences, 10, 7219-7234, doi:10.5194/bg-10-7219-2013 (2013) [link]

Mattern, J.P., Fennel, K., Dowd, M., Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of model hypoxia estimates for the Texas-Louisiana shelf, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 118, 1316-1332, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20130 (2013) [pdf]

Fennel, K., Hu, J., Laurent, A., Marta-Almeida, M., Hetland, R., Sensitivity of hypoxia predictions for the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sediment oxygen consumption and model nesting, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 118, 990-1002, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20077 (2013) [pdf]

Burt, W.J., Thomas, H., Fennel, K., Horne, E.: Sediment-water column fluxes of carbon, oxygen and nutrients in Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia, inferred from 224Ra measurements, Biogeosciences,10, 53-66, doi:10.5194/bg-10-53-2013 (2013) [pdf]


Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Hu, J., and Hetland, R.: Simulating the effects of phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes, Biogeosciences, 9, 4707-4723, doi:10.5194/bg-9-4707-2012 (2012) [link]

Mattern, J.P., Fennel, K., Dowd, M., Estimating time-dependent parameters for a biological ocean model using an emulator approach, Journal of Marine Systems 96-97:32-47 (2012) [pdf]

Hu, J., Fennel, K., Mattern, J.P., Wilkin, J., Data Assimilation with a local Ensemble Kalman filter applied to a three-dimensional biological model of the Middle Atlantic Bight, Journal of Marine Systems, 94, 145-156 (2012) [pdf]

Bianucci, L., Fennel, K., and Denman, K. L.: Role of sediment denitrification in water column oxygen dynamics: comparison of the North American east and west coasts, Biogeosciences, 9, 2673-2682, doi:10.5194/bg-9-2673-2012 (2012) [link]


Fennel, K., Cetinic, I., D'Asaro, E., Lee, C., Perry, M.J., Autonomous data describe North Atlantic spring bloom, EOS Transactions AGU, Vol. 92, No. 50, 465-466, doi:10.1029/2011EO500002 [pdf]

He, R., Chen, K., Fennel, K., Gawarkiewicz, G. G., and D. J. McGillicuddy Jr.: Seasonal and interannual variability of physical and biological dynamics at the Shelfbreak Front of the Middle Atlantic Bight: nutrient supply mechanisms, Biogeosciences 8, 2935-2946, doi:10.5194/bg-8-2935-2011 (2011) [pdf]

Fennel, K., Hetland, R., Feng, Y., DiMarco, S., A coupled physical-biological model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf: Model description, validation and analysis of phytoplankton variability, Biogeosciences 8, 1881-1899, doi:10.5194/bg-8-1881-2011 (2011) [pdf]

Bagniewski, W., Fennel, K., Perry, M.J., D’Asaro, E.A., Optimizing models of the North Atlantic spring bloom using physical, chemical and bio-optical observations from a Lagrangian float, Biogeosciences 8, 1291-1307, doi:10.5194/bg-8-1291-2011 (2011) [pdf] Access model output from Bagniewski et al. (2011) here.

Hofmann, E.E., Cahill, B., Fennel, K., Friedrichs, M., Hyde, K., Lee, C., Mannino, A., Najjar, R., O’Reilly, J., Wilkin, J., Xue, J., Continental shelf carbon budgets, pathways and forcing functions, Annual Reviews of Marine Sciences 3, 93-122 (2011) [pdf]


Fennel, K., The role of continental shelves in nitrogen and carbon cycling:
Northwestern North Atlantic case study
. Ocean Science 6, 539-548, doi:10.5194/os-6-539-2010 (2010) [pdf]

Mafra, L.L., Bricelj, V.M., Fennel, K., Domoic acid uptake and elemination kinetics in oysters and mussels in relation to body size and anatomical distribution of toxin. Aquatic Toxicology 100, 17-29 (2010) [pdf]

Druon, J.N., Mannino, A., Signorini, S., McClain, C., Friedrichs, M., Wilkin, J., Fennel, K., Modeling the dynamics and export of dissolved organic matter in the Northeastern U.S. continental shelf. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 88, 488-507 (2010) [pdf]

Mattern, J.P.; Fennel, K.; Dowd, M. Introduction and Assessment of Measures for Quantitative Model-Data Comparison Using Satellite Images. Remote Sens. 2, 794-818 (2010) [pdf]

Mattern, J.P., Dowd, M., Fennel, K., Sequential Data Assimilation Applied to a Physical-Biological Model for the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station, Journal of Marine Systems 79:144-156, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.08.004 (2010) [pdf]


Fennel, K., Wilkin, J., Quantifying biological carbon export for the northwest North Atlantic continental shelves, Geophysical Research Letters 36, L18605, doi:10.1029/2009GL039818 (2009) [pdf]

Lehmann, M.K., Fennel, K., He, R., Statistical validation of a 3-D bio-physicalmodel of the western North Atlantic, Biogeosciences 6:1961-1974, doi:10.5194/bg-6-1961-2009 (2009) [link]

Previdi, M., Fennel, K., Wilkin, J., Haidvogel, D.B., Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO2 Uptake on the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf, Journal of Geophysical Research 114, G04003, doi:10.1029/2008JG000881 (2009) [pdf]

O'Dor, R.K., Fennel, K., Vanden Berghe, E., A One Ocean Model of Biodiversity, Deep-Sea Research II doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.05.023 (2009) [pdf]

Fennel, K., Brady, D., DiToro, D., Fulweiler, R., Gardner, W.S., Giblin, A., McCarthy, M.J., Rao, A., Seitzinger, S., Thouvenot-Korppoo, M., Tobias, C., Modelling denitrification in aquatic sediments. Biogeochemistry 93:159-178 DOI 10.1007/s10533-008-9270-z (2009) [pdf]


Fennel, K., Wilkin, J., Previdi, M., Najjar, R. Denitrification effects on air-sea CO2 flux in the coastal ocean: Simulations for the Northwest North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L24608, doi:10.1029/2008GL036147 (2008) [pdf]

Fennel, K., Widespread implementation of controlled upwelling in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre would counteract diazotrophic N2 fixation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 371:301-303 (2008) [pdf]

Berman-Frank, I., Chen, Y., Gao, Y., Fennel, K., Follows, M., Milligan, A., Falkowski, P.G., Chapter 35: Feedbacks between the Nitrogen, Carbon and Oxygen Cycles. In: Nitrogen in the Marine Environment, edited by Mulholland, M., Carpenter, E., Capone, D., Bronk, D. Elsevier DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-372522-6.00035-9 (2008) [pdf]

Hofmann, E., Druon, J.-N., Fennel, K., Friedrichs, M., Haidvogel, D., Lee, C., Mannino, A., McClain, C., Najjar, R., Siewert, J., O'Reilly, J., Pollard, D., Previdi, M., Seitzinger, S., Signorini, S., Wilkin, J., Eastern US Continental Shelf Carbon Budget: Integrating Models, Data Assimiltion, and Analysis. Oceanography 21(1):32-50 (2008) [pdf]

Haidvogel, D.B., Arango, H., Budgell, W.P., Cornuelle, B.D., Curchitser, E., Di Lorenzo, E., Fennel, K., Geyer, W.R., Hermann, A.J., Lanerolle, L., Levin, J., McWilliams, J.C., Miller, A. J., Moore, A.M., Powell, T.M., Shchepetkin, A.F., Sherwood, C.R., Signell, R.P., Warner, J.C., Wilkin, J., Regional Ocean Forecasting in Terrain-following Coordinates: Model Formulation and Skill Assessment. Journal of Computational Physics 227:3595-3624 DOI:10.1016/ (2008) [pdf]


Katz, M.E., Fennel, K., Falkowski, P.G., Geochemical and biological consequences of phytoplankton evolution. In: Evolution of Primary Producers of the Sea edited by Knoll, A., Falkowski, P.G. (2007) [pdf]
Read Book Review in Science 319, 1 Feb 2008

Fennel, K., Collier, R., Larson, G., Crawford, G., Boss, E., The seasonal cycle of nutrients and plankton in Crater Lake. Hydrobiologia 574:265-280 DOI 10.1007/s10750-006-0356-0 (2007) [pdf]

Boss, E., Collier, R., Larson, G., Fennel, K., Pegau, W. S., Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR. Hydrobiologia 574:149-159 DOI 10.1007/s10750-006-2609-3 (2007) [pdf]


Rothstein, L.M., Cullen, J.J., Abbott, M., Chassignet, E., Denman, K., Doney, S., Ducklow, H., Fennel, K., Follows, M., Haidvogel, D., Hoffman, E., Karl, D., Kindle, J., Lima, I., Maltrud, M., McClain, C., McGillicuddy, D., Olascoaga, J., Spitz, Y., Wiggert, J., Yoder, J., Modeling Ocean Ecosystems: The PARADIGM Program. Oceanography 19(1):16-45 (2006) [pdf]

Fennel , K., Wilkin, J., Levin, J., Moisan, J., O'Reilly, J., Haidvogel, D., Nitrogen cycling in the Mid Atlantic Bight and implications for the North Atlantic nitrogen budget: Results from a three-dimensional model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20, GB3007, doi:10.1029/2005GB002456. (2006) [pdf]


Falkowski, P.G., Katz, M.E., Milligan, A., Fennel, K., Cramer, B., Pierre Aubry, M., Berner, R., Zapol, W.M. The rise of atmospheric oxygen levels over the past 205 million years and the evolution of large placental mammals. Science 309:2202-2204 (2005) [pdf]
Read commentary in Nature, and CNN coverage

Fennel , K., Follows, M., Falkowski, P.G., The co-evolution of the nitrogen, carbon and oxygen cycles in the Proterozoic Ocean. American Journal of Science 305:526-545 (2005) [pdf]
Read German and Austrian press coverage in Sϋddeutsche Zeitung, 101 May 3, 2005 and Der Standard, May 5, 2005

Katz, M.E., Wright, J.D., Miller, K.G., Cramer, B.S., Fennel, K., Falkowski P.G. Biological Overprint of the Geological Carbon Cycle. Marine Geology 217 (3-4):323-338 (2005) [pdf]


Fennel K., and E. Boss Subsurface maxima of phytopankton and chlorophyll--Steady state solutions from a simple model. Limnology & Oceanography 48(4), p.1521-1534 (2003) [pdf]

Fennel, K., M.R. Abbott, Y.H. Spitz, J.G. Richman and D.M. Nelson, Modeling controls of phytoplankton production in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II 50, p.769-798 (2003) [pdf]

Fennel, K., M.R. Abbott, Y.H. Spitz, J.G. Richman and D.M. Nelson, Impacts of iron control on phytoplankton production in the modern and glacial Souhern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II, 50 p.833-851 (2003) [pdf]

2000 - 2002

Fennel, K., Y.H. Spitz, R.M. Letelier, M.R. Abbott and D.M. Karl, A deterministic model for N2 fixation at Station ALOHA in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II 49, p.149-174 (2002) [pdf]

Fennel, K., M. Losch, J. Schröter and M. Wenzel, Testing a marine ecosystem model: Sensitivity analysis and parameter optimization. Journal of Marine Systems 28/1-2, p.45-63 (2001) [pdf]

Fennel, K., The generation of phytoplankton patchiness by mesoscale current patterns. Ocean Dynamics 52, p.58-70 (2001)

Humborg, C., K. Fennel, M. Pastuszak and W. Fennel, A box model approach for the long-term assessment of estuarine eutrophication, Szczecin Lagoon, southern Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 25, p.387-403 (2000)

1998 - 1999

Fennel, K., Interannual and Regional Variability of Chemical-biological Variables in a Coupled 3-D Model of the Western Baltic. Hydrobiologia 393, p.25-33 (1999)

Fennel, K., Convection and the timing of phytoplankton spring blooms in the western Baltic Sea. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 49, p.113-128 (1999)

Fennel, K., and T. Neumann, A Coupled physical-chemical-biological Model for the Western Baltic. In: Harff, J., W. Lemke & K. Stattegger (eds.). Computerized Modeling of Sedimentary Systems, Springer Berlin, p.169-181 (1998)